Sam Ghandchiسام قندچي A Few Results of a Research into Pluralism- Third Edition

Sam Ghandchi

چند نتیجه از پژوهشی در مورد پلورالیسم - ویرایش سوم

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*This is the third Persian edition and first English edition at the time of republishing two related articles about monism and pluralism on the IPC site.




"Men that inhere upon nature only, are far from thinking, that there is anything; singular in this world, as they scarce thinke that this world it selfe is singular, but that every Planet, and every Star, is another world like this. They find; reason to conceive not only a pluralitie in every Species in the World, but pluralitie; of Worlds. God, and Nature and Reason concurr against it." By John Donne, quoted from page 49 of Steven J. Dick's book, PLURALITY OF WORLDS (1982)


The autocracy that Islamists forced on Iran after the 1979 Revolution, and seeing the dictatorship in Vietnam, raised a question for my generation as to what if we or the currents we support come to power and not to do worse? In this vein, Marxist monism was more and more criticized. In 1982, when I returned to the U.S., I wrote two treatises entitled "Marxist Thought & Monism" and "Pluralism in the Western Thought" (1), and published in English as the subject matter was beyond Iran, and needed to be discussed internationally. At that time, a good friend wanted to introduce me to a group of Iranian scholars in Berkeley and asked what I see as the basic need for research work, to tell them? I said pluralism!

Although the co-operation of all political forces is a venerable attempt, but philosophically, the main point of pluralism is not about tolerance for opposing views. In fact, the debate is not essentially political. The issue is about our understanding of the truth. Is the truth one or many, and in the first case, is our awareness of the truth also many? How about the second case? This was the starting point for more detailed research on pluralism (2).

Now suppose someone comes and says that if a man and a woman shake hands, the woman becomes pregnant. Should we give such a view as much credibility as the scientific theory of chromosomes and fertilization in biology, because of the acknowledgment of pluralism! Here is how we sieve through the multiply, and the philosophical term of Occam's razor in medieval philosophy which is named after a philosopher by that name, seeks this objective when a simpler explanation is preferred to a more complex one. In a short introduction to Aristotle's Pluralism, it has been tried to go beyond this example, and the discourse of discovery of truth while acknowledging the plurality of truth is explained in more details (3).

Further investigation suggests that pluralism cannot be achieved without secularism, since such lack of secularism already blocks the path to multiplicity of truth by giving preference to a particular religion or ideology. For this reason, the founders of the New World in America, in spite of supporting religious freedom, laid the foundations for secularism to make pluralism possible (4) and more than a century before their time, Descartes based the modern science, not on any ideology or religion but on a new method (5), and after Descartes, the same approach to the discourse of pluralism was continued by philosophers like Leibniz (6) and Bertrand Russell (7).

Hoping for a democratic and secular
futurist republic in Iran,


Sam Ghandchi
23, 2019

* The first Persian edition was publish on Jan 7, 2016, and the second Persian edition was published on May 22, 2018. This first English edition is accompanied with the third Persian edition.



1. Marxist Thought & Monism - Second Edition
اندیشه مارکسیستی و مونیسم -یکتاگرائی - ویرایش دوم 
Pluralism in the Western Thought
پلورالیسم در اندیشه غرب - کثرت گرائی 
2. تأملی فلسفی: خردگرائی و آینده نگری
3. آینده نگری و پلورالیسم ارسطو
Futurism and Aristotle's Pluralism
4. What is Secularism
سکولاریسم چیست؟
5. Descartes and Laity
دکارت و لائیکات (مردم عادی غیر روحانی یا غیرمتخصص) 
6. Leibniz's Monads and Javadi's CPH
مونادهای لایبنیتس و سی. پی. اچ جوادی 
7. Pluralism and Russell's Logical Atomism
پلورالیسم و اتمیسم منطقی راسل 




















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