Sam Ghandchiسام قندچي John Locke, Catholics, Democracy, and Worldviews
Sam Ghandchi
جان لاک، کاتولیکها، دموکراسی و جهان بینی ها





In a recent article I wrote:


"The founders of the United States of America did not hesitate to protect private property as one of the three pillars of their democracy and although in Declaration of Independence, Jefferson replaces "Property" with "Pursuit of Happiness" in John Locke's trinity of "life, liberty, and property," but the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution declare that governments cannot deprive any person of "life, liberty, or property" without due process of law. In other words, private property is protected, although there is no barrier to taxation" (1).


Actually Thomas Jefferson's replacement of "Pursuit of Happiness" for  "property" was inspired by Leibniz's critique of John Locke, nontheless, later, the amendments to the US Constitution as discussed in the article referred above, was intended to make sure not to lose sight of economic foudation of democracy at the time of inception of the United States. Modern democracy has had many intricacies even till our times (2), and the above differences of views between the British John Locke and the French G. W. Leibniz and later in the works of the American Thomas Jefferson are not the only subtle issues. In fact, many of the debates between Isaac Newton and G.W. Leibiz were not just about physics and calculus, it was about the worldview propounded by Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation versus Leibiz's Monadology (3) when the latter rendered more of a precursor for a democratic republican perspective for the future. It is noteworthy that not only the British John Locke challenged the monarchy and hereditory system which was the reason he ended up in exile in Amsterdam but John Locke was also against Catholics holding office and American founders followed in his footsteps. This was because John Locke saw Catholicism to end up against modern democracy because of their primary allegiance to the Pope and not to their national government, the same way today we consider followers of Islamic Sharia to be anti-democratic, nonetheless, the ordinary Catholic or an ordinary Muslim is as secular as any Protestant and should not be discriminated against from holding office because of their religion, and they are not being discriminated on this ground in the U.S., as we know John F, Kennedy, a Catholic, actually became a US president. Yet, it is important to examine worldviews as they relate to democracy. For example, a Marxist worldview in most of its variations is deterministic and monistic and not democratic (4) whereas a Popperian worldview is mostly indeterministic and pluralist (5). One interesting writing of Karl Popper was his argument for an Indeterministic Open Universe (6) where he expounds his cosmology as similar discussions at the time followed Max Born's theories among the physicists, and one could call the view to be conducive to a democratic perspective of the world. In our times, the last work of Stephen Hawking about Cosmology which was done a little before his death was a lot more conducive to democracy than his earlier works (7). Of course scientists do not decide on their theories based on the social interpetations of them and are basically concerned about scientific truth, just like Darwin was; even though Darwin himself was a liberal but his theory of evolution was used by totalitarian states of Nazi's and Stalinists. These are among the topics discussed in a paper entitled "Scientific Worldview and Meaning of Life" (8).


Hoping for a democratic and secular futurist republic in Iran,


Sam Ghandchi

June 7, 2018




1. The quote is from an article that will be published soon in the 6th issue of Gitimadari, the publication of Iranian Secular Democratic Party-Futurist.

مقاله ای که از آن نقل قول شده بزودی در شماه ششم گیتی مداری فصلنامه حزب سکولار دموکرات ایرانیان-آینده نگر منتشر خواهد شد


2. What is modern democracy

دموکراسی حکومت مردم نیست، قضاوت مردم است


3. Leibniz's Monads and Javadi's CPH
مونادهای لایبنیتس و سی. پی. اچ جوادی


4. Marxist Thought & Monism -Second Edition
اندیشه مارکسیستی و مونیسم -یکتا گرائی


5. پلورالیسم در اندیشه غرب - کثرت گرائی
Pluralism in the Western Thought


6. Karl Popper, The Open Universe: An Argument for Indeterminism from the PostScript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery


7. Hawking?s radical instant-universe-as-hologram theory
Stephen Hawking?s final cosmology theory says the universe was created instantly (no inflation, no singularity) and it?s a hologram. There was no singularity just after the big bang (and thus, no eternal inflation) ? the universe was created instantly. And there were only three dimensions. So there?s only one finite universe, not a fractal or a multiverse ? and we?re living in a projected hologram. That?s what Hawking and co-author Thomas Hertog (a theoretical physicist at the Catholic University of Leuven) have concluded ? contradicting Hawking?s former big-bang singularity theory (with time as a dimension).
Problem: So how does time finally emerge? ?There?s a lot of work to be done,? admits Hertog. Citation (open access): Journal of High Energy Physics, May 2, 2018. Source (open access): Science, May 2, 2018


8. Scientific Worldview and Meaning of Life 
جهان بینی علمی و معنای زندگی 






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